by Danilo V.Donor ( M.A Ed. )
What country have six declarations of Independence? The answer: The Philippines. They are as follows:
April 12,1895 ,Good Friday, at Pamitian Cave, Montalban, Rizal. Andres Bonifacio, in the presence of the leaders of the Katipunan, wrote with trembling hands the words Long live Philippine Independence`.
August 23,1896,Balintawak ,Caloocan.Andres Bonifacio and about 1,000 Katipuneros,tore their cedulas or identification papers and shouted,`Long Live Philippine Independence !`. This is a viva voce proclamation.
October 31,1896,at Kawit ,Cavite,Emilio Aguinaldo in his decree exhorted the Filipinos`to fight to win our freedom and the Revolutionary Committee calls all freedom loving Filipinos to proclaim the liberty and independence the Philippines.
June 12, 1898 , at Kawit Cavite,an Act of Proclamation of Independence of the Filipino People was read and signed by delegates.
This is the accepted or official date recognized by Filipino historians.
October 4, 1943, Manila.Philippines was then under the brutal Japanese rule, Japan `recognize the Philippines as a free and independent state`.`
July 4, 1946, US President harry S.Truman proclaimed that the United States `recognize theindependence of the Philippines`.
Since 1947 to 1962, the Philippines celebrated Independence Day every July 4 ,same day as the US . Fourth of July.
On May 12,1962, President Diosdado Macapagal issued Proclamation No.28,declaring June 12 as Philippine Independence Day.
On August 4,1964,Congress passe3d Republic Act No.4166,confirming June 12 as Independence Day.
The story and controversy does not stop here. Revisionist historian and nationalist Prof,Renato Constantino believe that June 12 ,1898 declaration is a declaration of our independence under Spanish colonial rule and it is a proclamation of our country as a PROTECTORATE of US:`And summoning as witness...the Supreme Judge of the Universe,and UNDER THE PROTECTION OF THE MIGHTY AND HUMANE NORTH AMERICAN NATION,we proclaim and declare...these Philippine Islands...the right to be free and independent;that they are released e to the Crown of Spain..`(Renato Constantino.
The Philippines :A Past Revisited.pp. 210-211 )
In celebrating our Independence Day,we should be reminded of the wise observation of Apolinario Mabini, the `Brains of the Philippine Revolution :`We de
The dates cited above can be found in the book,JUNE 12,1898 AND OTHER RELATED DOCUMENTS, published by the National Histoical Institute,Manila 1998.